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June 2016 – Page-3

From the Koreshan Archives —

About a month early, but in this post we find the birthday of a Koreshan who rarely gets mentioned, but one who contributed a great deal to the cause of the Unity. I’m speaking of Nancy Cornelia Hawes Critcher She was born July 26, 1842,((1)) in Norwich Connecticut. She died on 11 October 1917. She was the youngest of four children born to Madison Hawes and Nancy Nelson Dam.

When she was 9 years old, she traveled with her mother to California. The three month ocean voyage around the Horn brought them to San Francisco in 1852 where they joined Nancy’s father, Madison, who had made the same trip in 1849. At this time Nancy was the only surviving child of Madison and Nancy. They lived on Taylor Street between California and Pine in San Francisco. Nancy went to a private school, to a Mrs. Purkitt, and she graduated from the Bush Street Denman School in San Francisco at the age of 12.

When she was almost 15 years old, on July 1857, she married Henry Critcher in San Francisco. Henry and Nancy lived in San Francisco from 1852 to about 1864 when they moved with her father, Madison, to the Octagon house in Brooklyn (now Oakland) in the East Bay.

They lived there until sometime after the 1868 earthquake during which the house was badly damaged. Henry and Nancy and their children returned to San Francisco where they lived in the home built in 1854 at the corner of Taylor and Pine. Henry died there in 1904. The house was destroyed in the earthquake and fire of 1906, and later that year Nancy joined the Koreshan Unity.

She was on the editorial staff of “The Flaming Sword” and was considered to be one of the best posted writers in Scientific religion in the United States. Her death was caused by an accident when she fell and broke several bones. She retained her mental faculties until a few hours before she died. She was buried at the Horseshoe Bend Cemetery.

Writing in “Folks We Knew in the K.U.” Marie McCready wrote that Cornelia Critcher: “Had an almost bass voice; was for a short time caretaker at the children’s cottage in Estero; was the mother of around a dozen children.(–Rosalea McCready) I remember somebody asked her why she did not live with one of her children and she replied that they all had big families, and children’s activities were too much for her.”(–Marie McCready.) She did, indeed have 14 children, born from 1858 thorugh 1880. She wrote a number of articles for the “Flaming Sword

Here are some excerpts from Nancy C. Hawes Critcher’s letters:

Estero, December 28, 1906; Dear Children: The sisters wear a kind of combination corset cover and skirt, which takes the place of the usual skirt and is cooler than wearing so many garments. Moreover, as each one does her own washing and ironing, it is very desirable to have as few pieces as possible! They should be made of some thin material, not necessarily very fine. I suppose you know what thin material will wear best as you have lived in a hot climate so long…….You asked me to describe my room, etc. Everything here is very primitive and pioneery; the rooms are in dormitory fashion divided by sheets…..I have a very pretty little dresser that I bought in Chicago, and a single iron bed – a nice little rocker and the usual toilet articles, and am very comfortable….We quite often have visitors……I need a little money to supplement the diet, which is sometimes not quite up to the standard, especially in sweet things, which you know I am very fond of.

Estero, August 6, 1907; Dear Grace: ….I never knew time to fly so fast. I help in any way that I can – principally in the sewing line. Then I think I told you that, for a novelty, I preside (?) over a table of boys. I wish I could send you a photo of some of the features of the place. We have some beautiful bamboo trees and China Berry trees. The park is really beautiful.

LETTER, May 4, 1917; written to Grace V. Critcher Belshaw from Nancy Cornelia Hawes Critcher (signed “Mother”): Nancy tells about life in the settlement:
Estero, May 4, 1917; My dear Grace: ….You ask about our membership here and the work…We have about a hundred brothers and sisters here, (have not the exact numbers) and work of many kinds is carried on. We have a very well equipped printing establishment, where our two papers, The Flaming Sword and The American Eagle are published. The Sword is our religious and scientific magazine, a monthly, and the Eagle, a weekly secular paper, absolutely independent of politics, and advocating all measures for the public welfare….The printing office also does job work for outsiders, besides printing our own tracts and leaflets. We have a saw mill, carpenter shop, machine shop and an electrical shop; also a laundry where all who wish can have their washing done. Many, however, myself among the number, prefer to do their own; the ironing of the sisters’ things is done by themselves. I have become quite an expert laundress! We have an agricultural dept, and a dairy, which supplies milk for the family; pigs and fowls, dogs and cats! Our park is greatly admired by visitors; it is the finest in the county. The recent freeze did a great deal of damage to our ornamental shrubbery, and some of the less hardy trees, but the general effect is as good as ever. I miss the fruit of California. The semi-tropical fruits such as guavas, mangos, papaws, etc. do not suit my taste like the pears, peaches, plums, etc. of the old time. But as I did not come here for the luxuries of the palate, I do not complain. I am satisfied that this is the best place for me, where all are agreed upon the religious plane, though still showing all of the human frailties on other lines! I read the articles in your papers, and found many good points in them. Where we differ fundamentally, however, is in our estimate of the Lord Jesus, who, to us, is all the God there is. We take for our standard the first chapter of John’s gospel which makes that fact very plain. Our life here hinges entirely upon our belief in the fact that uses to the neighbor are the real test of all religion. Love to God and the neighbor is shown by the performance of uses of daily life, done unselfishly from love. That is the aspiration, not always successfully carried out, but always the aim. To return to the enumeration of our equipment, I find that I failed to mention two very important items, our boat and autos. We have two autos and many boats. One, a large freighting a passenger boat, runs to Ft. Myers three times a week, as a common carrier for the neighborhood. The others are used between our Mound Key place, and Estero Island, both for pleasure and service. On Mound Key our vegetables are raised by a brother who lives there, and the Island is very much appreciated as a place of rest and recuperation. A brother lives there, also, and raises vegetables and chickens, besides keeping the place in beautiful order. There is fine salt water bathing to be enjoyed there, also……..We have in the river any amount of oysters, to say nothing of some very fine fish among which are mullet, which I consider as fine as any fish I ever ate with the sole exception of salmon. I believe I have now pretty well covered the subject of our numbers and resources. None of them are developed to the limit of their possibilities, because we have not enough men to fill so large a requirement. This reminds me that I have not told you much about the work of the sisters. The sisters and the children of whom there are ten, do the dining-room and dish-washing work; they, also (not the same ones) do mending for the brothers, and others sew for such of the sisters as cannot do their own. One sister makes shirts and overalls very expertly. Others make sheets and bed screens, etc. Many of the sisters are like myself……and cannot do very strenuous work, although not by any means deficient in power to do mental work. Our old ladies would be a credit to any Old Ladies’ Home! The brothers, as a rule, are nearer middle age.

OBITUARY; Mrs. N. C. Critcher (Newspaper and date omitted):
Mrs. Nancy Cornelia Critcher, relict of the late “Forty-Niner,” Henry Critcher, known as the Admiral, who was one of the organizers of the San Francisco Stock Exchange, died today October 11, 1917, at the Koreshan Unity, located at Estero, Florida, a religious organization founded by the late Dr. Cyrus R. Teed. Mrs. Critcher was on the editorial staff of “The Flaming Sword,” the organ of the community, and was considered by those who knew her, to be one of the best posted writers on scientific religion in the United States. She left a family of seven sons and four daughters,–Mrs. Charles H. Crowell, living in Spain; Mrs. Grace V. Belshaw at Antioch; Mrs. Virginia C. Brittson at Vallejo; Mrs. Reginald Atthowe of San Anselmo, all in California, and a granddaughter, Mrs. Engracia F. Freyer, wife of Lieut. F. S. Freyer of the United States Navy, of Washington, D. C. One of her sons, Edward Payson Critcher of the Chicago Herald, was at her bed-side when she passed away. Her death was caused by an accident several weeks ago, when she fell and broke several bones. She never recovered, but retained her mental faculties until a few hours before she died. She was buried at the Koreshan Unity Cemetery at Estero. She was 76 years of age, and lived in San Francisco from 1852 until 1905, when she moved to Estero, Florida.

  1. (please note that our genealogy pages show her birth in 1841. This has not yet been corrected) []

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June 2016 – Page 2 – Frank Lewis

In this post we take a closer look at Frank S. Lewis, husband of Anna Welton Lewis, who was also the sister of Rose Welton Gilbert. Frank, as far as we can tell, was never a believer, although as time passed after the death of Dr. Teed, I would suggest that there weren’t too many “believers“, but that the Koreshans were more of a “community” — that is, a group of like minded people who had been through a great deal of history together. This is, of course, not to say that there were still many believers, especailly among the early followers of Dr. Teed. But I believe that even they had a stronger tie to the community.

Frank Lewis c.1880's-90's

Frank Lewis c.1880’s-90’s

Frank and Anna are listed in the Claude Rahn Membership List, but it was Anna who was (at least at first) the Koreshan. Her mother joined the community at Moravia New York, one of Teed’s first attempts at forming a community. It seems clear, however, that Anna Lewis’ connection to the Koreshans became more of a “family cousins” kind of relationship.

Frank was a telegrapher (among other things). He worked for the Lehigh Valley Railroad at one time. He was born in Port Dickinson New York, just outside of Binghamton, on July 3, 1869. It is about 60 miles to Moravia, so it is unclear just how he and Anna met. They were married in 1896 and in 1900 they were living in Moravia((1)) (but not in a community) where Frank was a railroad station agent. In 1910 they were living in Jersey City, New Jersey((2)) where, once again, Frank was working as a telegraph operator. They were mentioned in the March 1916 “Community Current Events” column.

We are pleased to have with us Mr. and Mrs. Frank Lewis of Jersey City, N. J.
Mr. Lewis could only stay. a week, as business called him back to New York; but Mrs.
Lewis will remain some weeks. She is a sister of Sister Rose Gilbert, whom she
hadn’t seen for twelve” years. Their mother, Sister Ada Welton, was among the
Master’s early disciples, and helped him to establish the first Koreshan Home at
Moravia, N. Y.

In a 1923 “Community Current Events” column it was said:

Mr. and Mrs. Lewis of Jersey City, N. J., accompanied Sister Evelyn on the
return journey, traveling by water from New York to Jacksonville. The Lewises expect
to remain South for some time, and have taken up their abode in one of the Boomer cottages on Mirasol grove.

By 1940 Frank and Anna were living in Everglades City where Frank continued as a telegrapher and Anna was the Postmistress. In 1931 they built a home in Estero, which was dubbed “El Retiro”. The October 1931 “CCE” said:

The cottage on our grounds belonging to Mr. and Mrs. Frank S. Lewis has been completed and they spent their two weeks’ vacation there. The house will be occupied when they leave by Sisters Rose Gilbert and Florence Graham.

In 1923 Frank Lewis was a member of the Tamiami Trailblazers, a group that drove across south Florida from Naples to Miami to promote the building of the road (US-41) which was completed in 1928. Frank Lewis was a member of that group (as was Allen Andrews, Charles Hunt and Alfred Christensen). Frank maintained a diary of the adventure.

Frank Lewis died on December 7, 1945 and was buried in the Koreshan (now Pelican Sound) Cemetery. The January 1946 “Community Current Events” said:

Frank & Anna c.1923

Frank & Anna c.1923

“Brother Frank S. Lewis died at Lee Memorial Hospital, Ft. Myers, Friday, Dec. 7. The deceased was born in Port Dickinson, a suburb of Binghamton, N. Y., July 3, 1869. He became a telegrapher by profession, serving first with the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and several years later with the Western Union Telegraph Co. in New York City with whom he remained until coming to Florida in 1922. In 1923 he participated in the now historic Tamiami Trail Blazing trip with a party of men who took the first cars across from Ft. Myers to Miami before the Trail was completed. Shortly thereafter he became associated with the Barron Collier organization at Everglades, serving as telegrapher and accountant in the general offices until he retired and moved to Estero in December 1943. He was also secretary of the Tamiami Trail Masonic Lodge in Everglades. For nearly two years past he had served as bookkeeper and treasurer of The Koreshan Unity at Estero. He left no immediate family, other than his widow, Mrs. Anna Lewis. Mr. Lewis was a man of genial and kindly disposition whom to know was but to admire, and leaves a host of friends to mourn his loss. Burial was in Estero.”

  1. “United States Census, 1900,” database with images, FamilySearch (, Frank S Lewis, Moravia Township Moravia village, Cayuga, New York, United States; citing sheet 11B, family 353, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 1,241,013. []
  2. “United States Census, 1910,” database with images, FamilySearch (, Mira W Lewis in household of Frank S Lewis, Jersey City Ward 8, Hudson, New Jersey, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) ED 153, sheet 9A, NARA microfilm publication T624 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 1,374,904. []

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June 2016

With this first posting of the month, I want to, once again, mention another Koreshan, but in this case, the post will be a bit disconnected becasue, ironically, this person seems to have been lost to most Koreshan history. Or, perhaps she “left” Koreshan history…

Mary Mills, secretary to “Victoria” an early Koreshan was very active in the early days of the Unity. She was one of the women who accompanied Dr. Teed to Florida to search for land for the New Jerusalem.

Lyn Millner, in her book The Allure of Immortality talks about Mary Mills dedication to Victoria in the early Chicago days, but there is very little about her after this. She wrote:

Mary Mills (Courtesy of Florida Memory)

Mary Mills or Elizabeth Robinson? (Courtesy of Florida Memory)

More trouble among the women came to a head that winter, when Teed was out of town. Most of the women accepted Victoria’s leadership, though some did so grudgingly Others openly defied her. The question that came up at a meeting while Teed was away was a theological one: was Victoria divine? Two women believed she was—that the spirit of God had already entered her body. They were Berthaldine Boomer and Mary Mills. Boomer claimed to have had a private conversation with Teed on this very issue and that when she asked about Victoria’s divinity, Teed had bowed his head and told her it was so. But most of the women—even those who obeyed her, as Teed commanded—did not believe Victoria was divine. Teed had taught that she would not become divine until after Teed’s translation or theocrasis. Jennie (Andrews) knew this, but she also knew that Victoria was powerful, and she had seen what happened when women defied her. Jennie diplomatically suggested that the women wait until Teed returned so that he could solve the question for them. Victoria did not want to wait. At the next meeting of the women’s mission, Victoria presided as the mission’s president. One can imagine her, tall and poised in the dark Victorian clothing she favored, her wavy hair swept into a low chignon, surrounded by the more plainly dressed women. Mills and Boomer testified to her divinity. Jennie, who was expected to say something, arose and diplomatically told the group they should honor Victoria as their empress because she was appointed by Teed. At the end of the meeting they stood together and prayed; Jennie wrote that it was like a Methodist prayer meeting except that “the Lord God Almighty’s name was left out and another one substituted. But after the meeting, things got ugly. Boomer and Mills insisted that the ascending spirit of the Lord Jesus was in Victoria. Jennie hadn’t wanted to cause trouble, but someone needed to speak up, and it fell to her. She told Boomer and Mills that if Victoria were divine, it went against everything she had ever heard Teed teach. Mills, normally graceful and refined, became enraged. “[She] turned furiously with arms outspread and eyes blazing” and told the women that a devilish spirit was trying to defeat Victoria and eat away at their Unity. “You may eat yourselves up if you want to,” she said, “but don’t you dare to lay a hand on her.” The disagreement continued for two months, a crisis in their history, Jennie wrote. “It seemed to be a resistless tide that would carry all sense and reason before it . . . and if not checked would do great harm.” When Teed returned, he did not answer the question of Victoria’s divinity in words. Instead, there was a ceremony at Beth-Ophrah during which he crowned her with a wreath of laurels and said that her leadership represented an important era for the world: the age of womanhood and the power of women. One Koreshan read a paper she had written about the importance of obedience to Victoria. Then, in April for Victoria’s birthday, the Koreshans held a “coronation” for her at Beth-Ophrah. This was the first Lunar Festival, what became an annual celebration of Victoria’s birthday, the counterpart to the annual Solar Festival held to commemorate Teed’s birthday. There were music and speeches, and the Koreshan drama troupe performed the trial scene from Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice. Souvenir programs were printed in gold and blue, held together by gold cording. The front of the program showed a delicate crown with “coronation” printed across the headpiece.
From the Park Archives

From the Park Archives

One Koreshan described this as the most solemn and impressive occasion in the history of the movement to that point. He recorded what transpired: everyone gathered in the parlors of Beth-Ophrah to witness Teed’s confirmation of Victoria’s position as “Pre-Eminent.” Teed explained that she was the head over all orders. He bestowed upon her a new last name, Koresh, making her official name Victoria Gratia Koresh. He also formalized the appointments of the women of “The Triangle”—Victoria, Berthaldine Boomer, and Mary Mills and he created “The Planetary Group,” seven leading women in the movement. He told these women, “Stand by Victoria at all hazards as her cabinet.” He cautioned the other followers not to criticize the appointments, as they were made from the throne of Almighty God, with Teed simply as the messenger.“

So, Mary Mills was a member of the so-called “Triangle” and she certainly demonstrated her allegiance to Victoria. Note the two photos above. The first comes from the the Florida Memory Project, and is identified as Mary Mills. However, this photograph looks nothing like the photograph that we have identified in the Park Archives. The Florida Memory photo looks more like Elizabeth Robinson.

After the return to Chicago, there is no evidence that Mary went back to Florida. Other researchers have found census records which show a Mary Mills living in Chicago. Perhaps she remained a Koreshan believer, as did many, without living in the Unity. After that, all we can find is a death record for a Mary C. Mills in Chicago in 1921.

    Name Mary C Mills
    Event Type Death
    Event Date 27 Sep 1921
    Event Place Chicago, Cook, Illinois, United States
    Address 9832 Charles Street
    Gender Female
    Age 79
    Marital Status Widowed
    Race White
    Occupation at home
    Birth Date 11 Jun 1842
    Birthplace Brooklyn, , New York
    Funeral Home W. C. Walsh
    Burial Date 01 Oct 1921
    Burial Place Chicago, , Illinois
    Cemetery Oakwoods
    Father’s Name David Collier
    Mother’s Name Catherine Davidson
    Informant’s Name M Foster

Why did Mary Mills not return to Estero? Or, did she return? Why is she not mentioned in virtually any of the published material that has been collected? Did she have a change of heart?

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May 2016 – Page-3 – Peter Blem

In the “whatever happened to”, or perhaps in this case, “who is…” department we want to take a close look at another member of the Unity. This time it is Peter Blem (1880-1936).

Peter Christian (or Kristian) Blem was born in Svaneke, Denmark, the child of Jeppe Hansen Blem and Anine Kirstine Ipsen. The town of Svaneke is described as:

Svaneke (Swencke in 1410, from old Danish swan swan and *wīka inlet) is a small town on the eastern coast of the Baltic island of Bornholm, Denmark.

It is Denmark’s easternmost and until few years ago the smallest and now the second smallest (only Ærøskøbing is smaller) chartered town with a population of 1,059 as of 1 January 2014.[1] With its charming half-timbered houses and narrow streets, it is one of the island’s most cherished beauty spots((1))

Peter sailed from Copenhagen on the S.S. United States on April 8, 1909. He apparently lived in California for a time before coming to Estero. It is unclear just how he heard about the Unity. Peter is one of those Koreshans who joined the Unity after the death of Dr. Teed which seems, in my way of thinking, to make for a more dedicated believer. Peter’s skills were in art and painting. He served the community by creating backdrops for the many plays and presentations in the Art Hall. He also spent time helping with the bee colony. The July 1916 “Community Current Events” column mentioned Peter’s talents not only with scenery, but with the painting of Unity buildings.

The Planetary Court has been transformed in its appearance by a coat of paint;
the body color is yellow, the trimmings green, and the screen doors and window screens black. Brother Peter Blem, our painter, is busy at present painting “The Estero,” which is now being over-hauled. The next big job of painting will be the dormitory; with good walks, a new bridge, and newly painted buildings, the esthetic appearance of things here will be greatly enhanced.

Beside the “regular” painting, Peter also did some paintings that were placed in the Dining Hall. This excerpt from the November 1922 “Community Current Events” said:

Another excellent contribution before the Birthday was two paintings.; one of the Log House (the first dwelling house put up at the Unity) and one of a cypress scene, both done by our local artist, Brother Peter Blem. We are not an authority ,on painting, but it is hard for us to conceive how these paintings could be improved upon. Brother Peter has produced two paintings that surely meet with the general approval. They grace the walls of our Dining Hall, and, like everything that is done well, are exceedingly restful to the eye.

Peter began getting ill about a year or two before his death on May 12, 1936, just a few weeks shy of his 56th birthday. He was buried in the Korehan Cemetery (now the Pelican Sound Cemetery). After his death, his sister placed a stone on his grave, which is still here (unlike many of the other Pelican Sound graves). The October 1936 Community Current Events column wrote:

Peter Blem Grave (from "Find-A-Grave)

Peter Blem Grave (from “Find-A-Grave)

Peter Blem had loved ones in Denmark, who, since his passing, wish to commemorate his memory by placing a marker on his grave, and which his sister, Miss Ellen, made possible by furnishing the wherewithal. Miss Blem had promised to visit her brother here, and now she writes of the strong attachment between them. To know Brother Peter was to love him, for he was unquestionably one of the finest characters we have ever known and was universally liked by all who came to know him. To say that he is greatly missed, and particularly at this time, does but half express it, for he eagerly looked forward to the Master’s Birthday and took the lead in decorating the Art and Dining Halls for the occasion.((2))

  1. From Wikipedia []
  2. Flaming Sword, October 1936 []

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May 2016 – Page-2

Annie Ray Andrews (courtesy of Florida Memory)

Annie Ray Andrews (courtesy of Florida Memory)

In our last posting, we looked at the life of “Bertie” Boomer. In this posting we are looking at another member of one of the “Charter” families of the Koreshans, the Andrews family, and in particular, Annie Ray Andrews, the daughter of A.W.K. Andrews and Virginia Harmon Andrews. Annie Ray was one of those “second generation” Koreshans. May 6th marked Annie’s 137th birthday. She was born in Binghamton New York, the family home of the Andrews family. It was in Binghamton where her father and mother decided to leave everything behind to follow Dr. Teed. The book, “Folks we knew while in the K.U.”, written by Marie McCready says:

“Dr. Andrews, a physician and surgeon from New York state, and Virginia of southern birth, were among the first converts. Virginia, with her white hair and soft voice, was the typical “southern lady” type. …Annie Ray’s hair turned white while she was still young, which, with her black brows and lashes gave her a distinctive appearance.”

The photograph above shows Annie as many have remembered her. She always dressed very well. Here she is in one of her many hats.((1)) Although there is no documentation to verify, it appears that Annie dropped out of the Unity shortly after Dr. Teed’s death. Whether or not she was ever a “believer” could probably be debated. She was a member of that second generation of Koreshans which included the likes of Claude Rahn, Laurie Bubbett, Allen Andrews and others. Annie lived in several places, including New York City. There does not seem to have been an animosity between her and the Unity, or her family. But, like many, after the death of Dr. Teed, she moved on. Take a look at this photograph taken in New York in 1912. Laurie Bubbett, Annie Ray and Clause Rahn are seen enjoying New York. She apparently stayed away from the Unity for some time as the May 1916 “Community Current Events” mentioned her visit with her mother and brother after a five year absence.

Annie Ray Andrews Death Certificate

Annie Ray Andrews Death Certificate

THE FLORIDA State Press Association held its annual convention this year at Kissimmee. The American Eagle, our weekly publication, was represented by its editor, Brother Allen Andrews, and THE FLAMING SWORD by Sister Berthaldine; Sisters Virginia Andrews and Bertie Boomer taking advantage of the trip also. At Kissimmee they were joined by Miss Annie Ray Andrews of Brooklyn, N. Y., who had not seen her mother and brother in five years. Sister Bertie continued her journey on to New York, but the rest of the party arrived home on Sunday the 16th, reporting a most enjoyable time.

She died in 1928 from complications after surgery. See the copy of her death certificate above.

  1. Portrait of Koreshan Annie Ray Andrews. 18–?. Black & white photoprint, 7 x 5 in. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. []

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May 2016

Many Koreshans have sunk into obscurity. One can go through the Rahn Membership List and see many, many names of people that we know very little about. On the other hand, some of the earliest members of the Unity and their families are well know. One of those would be Bertha May Boomer, known to the world as “Bertie”. Her mother, Bertha Sterling Boomer was one of the original Koreshans who accompanied Dr. Teed to Estero in his hunt for the New Jerusalem.

Bertie Boomer Passport Application 1917.

Bertie Boomer Passport Application 1917.

Bertie May was born May 1, 1882, despite the fact that her gravestone in the Pelican Sound Cemetery says 1880. The 1882 date is confirmed by Bertie’s 1917 Passport Application, one of two found online. The first one, from 1917, shows that Bertie was living full time in New York City and that she planned on visiting Panama and Jamaica.

The second application, from 1920, shows that she had lived in Cuba for two months in 1917 and that her permanent residence was back in Estero. On this trip she planned on visiting Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Peru.

Bertie appears to have spent most of her time living with her mother at the home across from the Unity, known as Mirasol Grove. She also lived, for a time, in Fort Myers. Somewhere along the way, after 1920-1930, Bertie’s life seems to have changed, at least it appears that way thanks to the collection of papers that the archives obtained from the estate of Harry Manley. See the Manley Collection here.

Based on what is in this collection there seems to be some sort of “fringe” that Bertie appears to be tied into. There is not enough known, however, so one cannot say for sure. You can read more about the Bertie Boomer-Harry Manley-Hedwig Michel-Peter Bender relationship by revisiting the February 2014 posting.

Bertie died in 1941 in a freak accident. She was on the beach and accidentally run over by fellow Koreshan Harold Case. Here is the entry from the October 1941 Flaming Sword.

FLAMING SWORD–v.55, n.10, October 1941 — “Estero residents were shocked on Wednesday evening, September 3, to learn of the sudden death of Miss Betha M. Boomer, who was run down by a truck at Fort Myers Beach. Miss Boomer, who had been in swimming with a party of friends, left the water to get her bathing cap which she had forgotten. A glaring sun was low in the horizon and it is supposed that she failed to see the approaching truck which was driven by Mr. H. C. Case of Fort Myers. Miss Boomer was for many years a member of the Unity in Estero. She was an accomplished artist, being a graduate of Chicago Art Institute, and had a wide circle of friends. She is survived by her brother, Mr. L. M. Boomer, President of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel Company of New York, and a married sister, Mrs. Walter Thomas, living in a suburb of Philadelphia.

There is a new book out about an important member of the Koreshan Unity, Jeannie Fox Miller. The book, entitled Jeannie’s Journey: Great Grandmother’s Pioneering Tale is by Linda Tilson Davis. Click on the link for purchase information. Here is a description of the book:

Born in the mid-Victorian era, Jeannie Fox shuns her Quaker heritage to take an unusual, circuitous journey through life. Her ambition to become a teacher is realized but societal norms and laws force her to give up teaching when she marries. After having two children she begins to question her obligations and rights as a wife and joins a religious-scientific cult and commune in Chicago in part to escape her uncomfortable marriage. When she is threatened with losing her daughters, she leaves the commune and resumes her career as a teacher but maintains allegiance to the cult leader and his followers. A temptation to rejoin the commune is not as strong as the attraction to move to Oregon’s Hood River Valley and become a fruit rancher. Relations become stressed with her oldest daughter over her younger sister’s choice of a husband and lifestyle. A life-long dream to take a world tour turns into tragedy forcing her home prematurely to face the consequences and the remainder of her life.

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April 2016 – Page-3

This post ran in 2012. Since 2016 is an election year, we thought it fitting to revisit an election year in Koreshan history. The year was 1906 which became, in some ways, a turning point for the Koreshans. The whole notion of taxes, representation etc. has obviously continued 110 years later…

In his 1978 article in Florida Historical Quarterly, Elliott Mackle wrote:

The removal of Unity headquarters to Estero was in fact a consolidation. Furniture and personal goods of Chicago Koreshans were brought south in carload lots. Printing presses used for the production of tracts and magazines were installed in a print shop near the river and publication resumed. The population grew to about 200, a peak never significantly surpassed during Dr. Teed’s lifetime. Meanwhile, however, the Koreshans’ relations with nearby property owners, which had been relatively free of friction since 1894, began to change. Neighboring small farmers, alarmed at the influx of people into a sparsely populated district, began to speak out against Koreshan plans to build railroads and elevated boulevards through their fields. As a precaution against interference, therefore, Dr. Teed decided upon municipal incorporation of Estero. A meeting of registered voters and affected property owners was held on September 1, 1904. Incorporation was approved, municipal organization and ordinances voted, and officers, all of them Koreshans, were elected. The town’s corporate limits conformed to plans for New Jerusalem:
110 square miles were contained within Estero’s boundaries. The property of several non-Koreshans who objected to incorporation was not included within municipal limits.

Resistance and opposition to the incorporation from the local press were minimal since, in 1904, the Koreshans had supported the election of Philip Isaacs, editor of the Fort Myers Press, forerunner of today’s Fort Myers News-Press.

Mackle goes on to say:

Dr. Teed’s relations with the press had not been very amicable. Reporters had portrayed him as a pompous schemer and a fraud. Teed often had turned such insults to good account by using them as excuses for playing the martyr in the pages of his own publications. Lee County, however, had now become his base of operations and the home of the Unity. Posturing was easily detected, and laughed at, in a small community like Fort Myers. Prudence was required; he wanted good publicity, and he also wanted treaties, however temporary, with the powerful. Isaacs’s role as editor, coupled with his elevation from town councilman, his last official position, to the bench, must have made him seem an influential person. In fact he was controlled, as were both the Democratic party organization and the newspaper, by the wealthy Hendry family. The treaty between Teed and Isaacs lasted two years. Teed brought disaster on himself, and on Isaacs, by neglecting to form some new arrangement. And Isaacs, like Teed, misjudged the power of his position, thereby contributing to his own undoing. These personal disasters, which accompanied a severing of public ties between Estero and Fort Myers, were occasioned by the events of the election of 1906. The seeds of the conflict had been sown two years earlier. Municipal incorporation had entitled Dr. Teed and his officials to claim a share of county road tax funds, but they found that county officers were loath to divert dollars from their own projects, particularly those in Fort Myers. There was also, in some quarters, a resentment against the northern newcomers who sought to establish what might become a rival county seat, who boasted that they would revolutionize the world and turn it inside out, and who followed a messiah other than Christ. County officials, needing a bargaining chip, looked back to the records of the Democratic primary election of May 1904, when Koreshans had been permitted to register and to vote. 15 In the November general election, however, the Koreshans had voted for Republican Theodore Roosevelt, rather than the Democrats’ nominee. Although the Koreshans had otherwise supported the ticket, this defection provided an excuse to disenfranchise them for the election of 1906. The instrument of this disenfranchisement was a pledge which participants in the first Democratic primary of May 1906 were required to sign if challenged. It stated that the voter would support all Democratic nominees of 1906, and that he had “supported the Democratic nominees of 1904, both state, county, and national.“ Based upon laws passed to deny blacks the franchise, this pledge was so worded as to exclude those who had voted for Roosevelt and those who had not been in Lee County in 1904 and had therefore not voted. The Koreshans stubbornly refused to be intimidated. They appeared at the Estero precinct polling station on the day of the first Democratic primary, protested against the pledge, but then signed it after crossing out certain of the qualifications, and bloc-voted for the candidates of their choice. The Democratic executive committee, of which Philip Isaacs was chairman, thereupon threw out the entire vote of the Estero precinct, including eight votes by the non-Koreshan electors, and instructed election inspectors to bar Koreshans from voting in the second primary. Isaacs and the party had not found it necessary to curry Dr. Teed’s favor. The Democratic candidates for county office could be elected without Estero support, and the Koreshans were ineligible to participate in Fort Myers municipal contests-a bond referendum, an election for town aldermen, in which Isaacs was a candidate, and the elevation of a Hendry to the office of mayor.

When the Koreshans began publication of the “American Eagle”, its main purpose, as stated in a previous post was to oppose Issacs and others in the 1906 election.

Here are some examples of the political “cartoons” that the Koreshans created. These are contained in a little booklet given to Dr. Teed by Walter Bartsch, a member of the Unity. You can view the entire booklet of cartoons by going to this link

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Revisionist History and Strange Stories

Having been involved with Koreshan history for over 20 years, I’ve always found it interesting to see and hear what some people are saying. The story of Cyrus Teed, a.k.a. Koresh and the Koreshans have been told many different ways. For example, the Koreshans themselves put Koresh up as some kind of martyr after his death in 1908. It played better than admitting that he simply died of a circulatory disease, as was probably the cause of his death.

In this age of the Internet, you can do a search and find a million sites. For example, a recent Google Search found over 8 million hits for “Hollow Earth” and almost 10,000 hits for “Cyrus Teed”.

The history of the Koreshans is certainly bizarre in some ways, but it is real history and not some kind of fairy tale. I recently ran across a short video produced by the Travel Channel. In it they say that Teed was beaten nearly to death at a political meeting where the Koreshans were trying to incorporate Estero to avoid paying taxes. After Teed’s death, the real cause for the demise of the Koreshan”cult” was that cursed “celibacy”. Hmmm… I suppose that is partly true, but the way it was explained in the video was not really true. They took many real historical episodes and combined them into one story. Yes, Teed was beaten — yes, the Koreshans sought to incorporate Estero (and did), but not to avoid taxes, but to get their share of tax money. Celibacy certainly played a part in the demise of the Koreshans, but the demise was more due to the fact that none of Teed’s claims were substantiated. Take a look for yourself and see what this revisionist history sounds like.

A few years back the History Channel had a program called “Weird U.S.”. Their video is not available online, but they have a web page devoted to the Koreshans. Their explanation is a little more fact and less sensational. The video was not quite as accurate, claiming that they put Teed’s body onto a barge of some kind and sent it down the Estero River. Of course, Teed died on Estero Island (Fort Myers Beach), so there was no need to move his body down the river.

Then there are the strange ones out there. A web site that claimed Teed returned in 2006, walking ashore in England. Here is an excerpt from the website

From the website

From the website

Teed was never seen again until: On December 26th, 2006 98 years after his last appearance a man claiming to be Dr Cyrus Reed Teed appeared to walk from the sea and onto the beach at Canvey Island, Essex, UK. Whilst on the island Teed attempted to turn Canvey into his New Estero and set out a series of plans to create a community based upond his updated vision of the Cellular Cosmogony. After only 6 months Teed once again disappeared, leaving only his suit behind in Canvey Heights Country Park.

You can find all these in one place or another. Since Teed’s death in 1908 there have been a number of people either claiming to be Teed’s successor or Teed himself, even to the point where one man informed the State Historic Site that he would be returning soon and that they should prepare for his return.

What is fact is that the Koreshans were “different“, but their belief in a communal society was not uncommon at the turn of the 20th century. The idea of a hollow earth was also a plausible idea in the 1890’s since science had not progressed to the point where ideas such as theirs were found to be totally lacking.

Within the last month, the Huffington Post ran an article entitled The Florida Sect Doomed From the Start. Maybe, but the article, which was intended to make light of the weirdness of Koreshan beliefs said things like “Here is the written premise of the Koreshanity — do you see how it rhymes so well with insanity?“. That is easy to say in 2016. The point here is that the Koreshans were “real” folks who were, for the most part, very well educated. Yes, Cyrus Teed died and was not resurrected, but the basic notion of the Koreshan belief was the “Golden Rule” and living in community, something that was tried all over the world, from the Economites, to the Shakers and to the Harmonists, and perhaps that is what really matters, not their attempts to take science in a different direction, nor in the attempt of 21st century pundits to show the Koreshans as whackos.

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April 2016

 —  In 2009 when the “College of Life” began the process of transferring photographs from their archives to the State Archives, the State Historic Site helped with the process and thus the State Historic Site was allowed to copy many of the photographs for local interpretation and use. It was exciting since most of the photos had never been seen before, at least not by the Park staff. In this sample, Dr. Teed is seen posing with Annie Ordway, a.k.a. “Victoria Gratia”.

Dr. Teed and Victoria

Dr. Teed and Victoria

It appears they are on the porch of the “Founder’s Home”. Comparing this with other photos, Teed doesn’t look too healthy, or perhaps just not happy. It is always difficult to determine attitude in these old photographs. Victoria certainly looks hapy though. The “Doctor” may have been very warm in his attire and it may have been a hot day. Or, perhaps he had other things to do besides posing for pictures? No one could really know. The nice thing is that we get yet another glimpse of life in Estero more than 100 years ago.((1)) The Koreshan Unity (College of Life) collection at the State Archives can be viewed in the Florida Memory Project

Virginia Harmon Andrews

Virginia Harmon Andrews

April is the month of the Lunar Festival, (celebrating “Victoria Gratia“) as well as many other important dates in the Koreshan calendar. April 4th marks the 170th birthday of Virginia Harmon Andrews, the wife of Dr. A.W.K. Andrews.((2)) She and her husband were one of the first followers of Dr. Teed. A visitor to this website sent us transcripts some years ago, of letters that Dr. Andrews wrote to his wife Virginia’s mother, Margaret Harmon explaining why he and his wife had come to believe in Dr. Teed’s mission. They give us some valuable information about followers of Dr. Teed. [See AM-0153]

We also remember the marriage of Cyrus Teed and his wife, Fidelia M. Rowe, on April 13, 1859. For all intents and purposes Teed left his wife, even if the official Koreshan line never admitted this. Teed never divorced her and there are indications that he made sure she was cared for as she became an invalid. There is some discussion about what exactly happened, but it is widely believed that Teed got caught up in his own beliefs and chose to become celibate and carry on with his work. His wife is found in the 1860 census living with her parents and Arthur Teed, their only child, although it is said that Teed moved his family to New York City in 1862.

Teed’s parents, Jesse Sears Teed and Sarah Ann Tuttle also celebrate their 180th wedding anniversary this month.

And so it goes…

  1. Dr. Cyrus Reed Teed, founder of the Koreshan Universology, with Koreshan Unity president Victoria Gratia at his Estero home. Between 1903 and 1908. Black & white photoprint, 5 x 7 in. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. . []
  2. Portrait of Koreshan Virginia Andrews. Not after 1921. Black & white photoprint, 3 x 5 in. State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory. []

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March 2016 – Page-3

We never tire of posting articles from the Community Current Events column, or, as it was known in 1916, “Current Events in Our Community Life”. This one, from April 1916 describes life in the Unity in the early part of the last century, within eight years of the death of Cyrus Teed.

Here is the April 1916 edition,((1)) with the addition of a photo related to parts of the article.

WE HAVE HAD a very pleasant two week visit from Brother Peter Campbell and his wife, Sister Jennie, and their little grandson, Raymond King Trebell. They have been connected with this work for a good many years, being among the early pioneers here in Estero. Sister Jennie was caretaker of the younger folks in Chicago, and brought them to Estero years before the Northern Division of the Unity left Chicago. She had at one time in her charge as many as 42 children; and while these have now grown to be men and women, it is pleasing to notice her motherly regard for them all, and every once in a while we hear of some of them gathering at their New York home. Brother Peter had charge of the saw mill on Estero Island, during the pioneer days, and did his share in helping to transform Estero from a wilderness into a beautiful spot.

It will be of interest to many to know that the Campbells, with their daughter Edith, were with the Master on Bunker Hill, Portland, Ore., when he delivered that memorable message, the “Proclamation,” the “Battle Cry of the White Horse Army,” which is recorded in THE FLAMING SWORD of January 24, 1891 This “Proclamation” is also in pamphlet form. The Master told Brother Peter it was necessary for the message to be delivered from that very spot. Since our friends have lived in New York City, they have performed some valuable work in behalf of the Koreshan cause. It surely has been a great pleasure to have been favored with this visit,’ and we hope they will repeat it often, as no one will be more welcome than they.

At the Sunday evening Service of March 12, a sister read the following article from the Writings of KORESH, in FLAMING SWORD of August, 1908: “Does Humanity Constitute a Brotherhood?” The quartette sang, “The Lord Is In His Holy Temple,” after which three more short articles were read: “Progress Through Dispensations,” “Thoughts are Things,” and “Incarnation and Insanguination,” from FLAMING SWORD of Oct., 1908. “In the Hollow of His Hand,” was then sung; the Service closing with a prayer, and the Anthem, “Lift Up Your Heads, 0 Ye Gates.”
We had visiting us for a week, Mr. Benjamin Franklin, of Philadelphia, who has been somewhat interested in Koreshanity for the past twelve months.

On Saturday, March 18, a great many of the members of the Unity availed themselves of the opportunity to visit the Boomer property, across the river, and inspect the new barn just completed. The contract was let to the Koreshan Unity; the

Koreshans gather at the Boomer Barn in 1916.

Koreshans gather at the Boomer Barn in 1916.

construction was in charge of Brother Stephen Chislett, and certainly reflected great credit on him and his co-working brothers for fine workmanship, and on the Unity, in having such efficient and faithful members.

Sister Berthaldine, the mother of Mr. LL M. Boomer, and her daughter, Sister Bertie, made this occasion one to be long remembered. The building was gaily decorated, and presented a gala appearance. Sister Elizabeth Robinson played a number of new records, as well as many others from her voluminous collection, on her Victor Talking Machine, which were very much enjoyed. The male quartette sang the following popu-lar numbers, assisted on the violin by Brother Harold Moreland: “Hail Columbia;” “The Battle-Cry of Freedom;” “Flag of the Free,” and the “Song of a Thousand Years.” The one thing which furnished the most amusement was the so called fish pond, inasmuch as each had to exhibit what he caught. The pond was a large clothes basket, which was out of the fisher-man’s view, filled with packages contributed by the different members. Some of the -contributions were exceedingly funny. Refreshments were served as a crowning climax, after which the members took the boat for home, with a most pleasant memory of a well spent afternoon.

That same night Mr. and Mrs. Albert Miller, of Chicago, came in on “The Estero.” Mrs. Miller, or Sister Alice as she is familiarly known here, was on the contributing staff to THE FLAMING SWORD in the early days in Chicago, and wrote under the name of Alice Fox Miller. Her keen grasp of Koreshan fundamentals is very marked in all her articles. Mr. Miller, though not of our faith, has nevertheless been a good friend to the cause; on certain occasions assisting the Unity very materially. We appreciate and always enjoy a visit from them.

At our Sunday evening Service of March 19, the following article was read from THE FLAMING SWORD of March, 1909: “The Possibility and Process of Redemption.” Every now and then the Master used to give what he pleased to call “A Home Talk.” The above selection is such a “talk,” stenographically reported by Sister Isadora. It is truly a wonderful article; one that can’t be read too often, inasmuch as special emphasis is placed on doing the commandments : “Blessed are they. that do his commandments.” The quartette sang, “Adonai.” Having many visitors at this time, the decorations were unusually attractive and beautiful.

On the following Monday, a picnic was arranged in honor of our guests. “The Estero” left the dock in the morning, with twenty-eight on board, bound for Garlos Point. At the mouth, of the river we anchored, and some of the brothers busied themselves gathering oysters. The tide was low, and in a short time we filled several sacks. Our next stop was the fish house, where, with a silver hook, we purchased the choicest silver mullet caught in these waters; these were cooked to suit the taste of the most exacting, and it is needless to say that everyone did full justice to the good things prepared. Brother John Sargent made a short speech, thanking us all for helping him to celebrate his birthday, he having reached his seventieth milestone. This was news to us; nevertheless, we were glad to help Bro. John celebrate. Many interesting things were recalled during the day, in connection with the Koreshan movement, which were exceedingly interesting to some of the newer members, as well as a joy to those who had passed through them. The day was all one could wish for; and having to wait till about nine in the evening for the tide, we returned home under the most glorious moonlight, feeling very much rejuvenated.

On Saturday evening, March 24, the Dramatic Art Club of the Unity, under the direction of Sister Bertie Boomer, presented at the Art Hall, Lady Gregory’s short play, “Spreading the News,” with the following cast: Bartley Fallen, John Clinchy; Mrs, Fallen, Bertha M. Boomer; Mrs. Tully, Marie Fischer; Mrs. Tarpey, Ella Graham; Shawn Early, Arnold Fischer; Tim Casey, Lou Staton; James Ryan, Frank Rahn; A Policeman, Alfred Christensen; A Removable Magistrate, Chas. Hunt; Jack Smith, D. J. Richards. This is one of seven short plays that Lady Gregory has written, and the London Daily News speaks of them as follows:

“There is indeed something very fine in the genius of Lady Gregory, which enables her thus truly and delicately to convey the fine edge of humor and the preying loveliness of grief. She has a very sure hand. It would be hard to recommend too highly this ingratiating volume of plays.”

The audience was well pleased with the production; the many complications proved exceedingly humorous, but at the same time imparting a good moral lesson, that of circulating stories without the least basis of foundation, and when repeating same, coloring it to suit one’s own fancy. The special scenery provided for the occasion was very effective, for which much credit is due Brothers Peter Blem, John Clinchy, and Lou Staton, who assisted Sister Bertie in making this feature a decided success.

At our Sunday evening Service of March 25, the following selections were read by a sister from the Writings of our Master: “The New Jerusalem, the Hidden City of God,” in FLAMING SWORD of Oct., 1908, and “The Koreshan Religio-Sociology” in F.S., Sept., 1908. The solo for the evening was “Open the Gates of the Temple.” We are often asked why we don’t increase in numbers faster than we do, but the following quotation from THE SWORD of Sept., 1908, is the best answer that could be given:

“The Koreshan Unity is the power ordained of God to fulfil the purpose of the Almighty in the estab-lishment of the new order of society. We are often advised to drop religion from our advocacy of the cooperative and communistic principles to which we hold. We are frequently informed that our work would progress more satisfactorily if we would leave religion out of the question. We have to again iterate our statement: We want the fruit of the age only, as our gathering represents, and therefore do not urge irreligious people to enter our institution. We are after the people who love the Lord, and who can be induced to love him through the power of regeneration, which began to work in them at the beginning of the Christian dispensation.”

On Wednesday evening, March 29, the K. U. Orchestra gave a concert in honor of our friends from New York City. The Campbells hail originally from Scotland, and so does our Orchestra leader. Brother James W. Calderwood, so he aimed to make the evening ring with memories of the “Auld Kintry.” The stage was decorated with Scotch thistles. The writer sang “Ye Banks and Braes of Bonny Doon;” Brother James Calderwood sang “The Auld Scotch Sangs” very effectively, and responded to an encore with “Annie Laurie.” Another distinctive feature was a Highland dance by Brother John Watson, dressed in his Scottish kilts.

Brother Harold Moreland, a recent acquisition to the K. U. Orchestra, made his initial bow in this concert as a violin soloist, playing for his first number, “Chopin’s Nocturne,” in a very beautiful manner, which gained him instantly the approval of his audience; he responded to an encore with Mascagni’s “Cavaleria Rusticana.” His technique is very good, and with the right kind of training Harold is destined to become a master on the violin. The Orchestra played the following numbers: “The Winning Fight;” “Vienna Beauties, Waltz;” “Moskowski’s Serenade;” “Light Cavalry” and several Waltzes and Two-Steps in which dancing was participated, making the evening one of great enjoyment.

At the Sunday evening Service of April 2, the following selections were read by a brother, from the Writings of KORESH : “The Apostolic Succession,” from THE FLAMING SWORD of March, 1910, and “The Science of the Resurrection,” from SWORD of July, 1910. The male quartette sang, “The Lord Is My Shepherd.”

We have had with us for a few days, Mr. L. M. Boomer, of New York City, who is paying a visit to his mother and sister, as well as looking after the interests of his property, which we have previously mentioned in this issue. Mr. Boomer is manager of the McAlpin Hotel in New York, one of the largest hotels in the world.
At our Sunday evening Service of April 9; a sister read articles from FRAMING SWORD of June, 1909, entitled: “A Return to Correct Principles,” “A House Divided Against Itself;” and “The Performance of Uses of Life;” The quartette sang “The Lord Is Great,” after which “The Confession of the Messiah” and “The Overcomer and Baptizer,” were read from FLAMING SWORD of May, 1909. The last being a short paragraph in which KORESH states as follows:

“Some one at the end of the age must overcome for all other men. We mean by this, that there must be a Discoverer, a Teacher, who must be the Baptizer; for it is only through his power to overcome and baptize, that others can come into the power of .life. ‘Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord: and he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers.’ Elijah the Prophet is the High Priest of conjunction. He will purify the sons of Levi; that is, the sons of conjunction. Elijah is the Lord in his personal coming; he is Peter, who comes in authority.”

Also, March 29, is the 124th anniversary of the birth of Hedwig Michel.

Hedwig Michel

Hedwig Michel

She was born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1892 to Ferdinand Michel and Emma Wertheimer. Many call her the “last” Koreshan, others say she was merely an opportunist. There is no doubt that she helped to sustain the Unity in bad times with her management skills, but one has to wonder why it was that two original Koreshans, Allen Andrews and Laurie Bubbett ended up as enemies after Hedwig entered the scene. Hedwig and Laurie were also accused of spending money on themselves instead of on the remaining Koreshan members. At one point Hedwig and Laurie took a cruise to Europe. Perhaps it was necessary, but it certainly makes one wonder about Hedwig’s commitment to the “community”. Others simply say that she was committed to the Unity and she did everything she could to carry it into the 20th century that saw scientific advancements that disproved many of the Koreshan theories. The Fort Myers News-Press ran an article in their “Tropicalia” section back in 2010 asking many of the same questions. Amy Bennett Williams, the Tropicalia editor, pretty much came to the same conclusions. Namely, that despite her talents, Hedwig could have done nothing to stop the demise of the Koreshans. Her somewhat caustic personality also contributed to some ill will. Author Lyn Millner, in her book, writes that Hedwig was described as an “Interloper”((2)). Some former park rangers have said that when Hedwig was living in the Planetary Court she used to come out agitated and tell them what they were doing wrong. Perhaps that was nothing more than her apparent difficulty in letting go.

  1. Catalog # PA—0209–The Flaming Sword, April 1916–Current Events in Our Community Life – By D. J. RICHARDS []
  2. Quoting Bill Grace in: Millner, Lyn. The Allure of Immortality: An American Cult, a Florida Swamp, and a Renegade Prophet. p.255 []

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